ALL ABOUT BINDERS AND HOW TO USE THEM

Binders are a crucial part of any healing protocol.

Binders are essentially insoluble fibers. Whilst dietary fiber plays an important part in daily detoxification, selective binders are used to increase the excretion of specific toxins.

The process of detoxification is a multi-stage process that involves mobilizing, bio-transforming, and eliminating toxins. Binders only increase the elimination of toxins.

When the liver processes toxins, they get bound to the bile, excreted into the gastrointestinal tract, bound with insoluble fibers, and then eliminated via the stool.

When there is insufficient insoluble fiber or binders to absorb the bile, the overflow is picked up in the colon and recirculated via the hepatic portal vein and onto the vagus nerve, where it recirculates in the body.

Therefore, Binders reduce the number of toxins recirculated, reduce the load on the liver and kidneys, and speed up the process of elimination.

Binders also perform other beneficial functions.

Some can absorb the toxins into their fibers, preventing “die-off” reactions and damage to the gastrointestinal tract. As insoluble fibers, they can also stimulate beneficial bacteria.

Zeolite, Enterosgel®, and Kremezin® can also absorb histamine and some binders even modulate the immune system.


HOMEOSTASIS

Health depends on the body being able to maintain homeostasis, and toxins or foreign substances can cause a loss of homeostasis.

Removal of toxins or foreign substances is an integral part of the body’s design. Whole organs, including the liver and kidney, amongst others, are dedicated to detoxification.

Problems only occur when demand exceeds supply, where the quantity of toxins exceeds the organ’s ability to detoxify them.

Whilst the technology to map the genome has led to an increased awareness of genes, this has not led to an increase in our health. Epigenetics (how our environment interacts with our genes) determines our health.

As Dr. Klinghardt recently said:

“Most psychiatric disorders, most neurological disorders, most chronic illnesses are not a failure of the genes. It’s the number of toxins stored in the central nervous system and immune system that determines the fate of us humans.”

In his work, Klinghardt finds the main culprits implicated in chronic health problems are; aluminum, mercury, lead, glyphosate, endotoxins (from parasites, Lyme, and co-infections), and mycotoxins (from mold). EMF exposure and retroviruses amplify these.

Restoring homeostasis not only requires reducing exposures to toxins (avoidance through clean water, clean food, clean product, and clean air) but also by blocking their absorption or upregulating the elimination of toxins (through, amongst other things, the use of binders).

 BINDER SELECTION

The selection of the right binder for the right toxins is a skill.

The binder that works well for someone can differ greatly based on their toxin load, and what works well can also change during different phases of healing.

Functional lab testing can determine toxin loads, but I am increasingly using ART testing to identify individual needs.

Whilst there are many studies on individual binders, few comprehensive studies are comparing all binders.

The following represents a summary of binders' key features from both the published research and practical experience across hundreds of clients.

HEAVY METALS & ENDOTOXINS

MYCOTOXINS

 

As you can see, it is not possible to get one binder that will selectively detoxify everything.

For this reason, I typically utilize one type of binder in the morning and another type in the evening. Chlorella and zeolite are perfect combinations.

Alternatively, combination products (like Quicksilver Ultrabinder or Pure Encapsulations HM Complex) can be used.

The brand used really matters. The products used mustn't introduce new foreign substances. This is true for all binders but especially true for bentonite clay and zeolite, contaminated with aluminum.

Here are some of the binders I use:


Activated Charcoal

Activated charcoal is manufactured from wood, peat, or coconut shell. During the manufacturing process, the charcoal is ‘activated’ by having holes created within its structure.

Activated charcoal is a broad-spectrum binder that will bind a little bit of everything. This means it will bind toxins and mycotoxins and vitamins and minerals, and inflammatory molecules.

It is best used in acute poisoning or chronic die-off situations. Alternatively, in small amounts as part of a blend for a limited time.

Recent studies show that a particular type of charcoal (AST-120 or Kremezin®) Kremezin is made by the Japanese Kureha Corporation.

Kremezin® is available in Japan and Korea and approved for use in chronic renal failure. Studies also show it to be extremely effective with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) due to its high histamine binding capability.

The following products are extremely effective:

Bentonite Clay

Bentonite clay is also known as Montmorillonite clay.

It is perfect for absorbing mycotoxins found in peanuts and on some grains, pesticides, herbicides, and cyanotoxins found in lakes polluted by harmful algal blooms.

Bentonite clay also has intrinsic broad-spectrum antibacterial properties and has a healing effect on the gastrointestinal lining.

Due to contamination, including the presence of aluminum, the source really matters. I only currently use this as part of a blend:

Chitosan

Chitosan is equivalent to Welchol, which is used for mycotoxin binding, cholesterol, and weight reduction.

Chitosan works by binding to the bile salts themselves, so it binds to all fatty acids. For this reason, it should not be used long-term.

Derived from shellfish, chitosan is the result of enzymatic treatment of chitin, a shell component. People who are allergic to shellfish may not tolerate Chitosan.

Chlorella

Chlorella is blue-green algae rich in vitamins, minerals, iron, and amino acids with a high affinity for heavy metals, but not aluminum, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, herbicides, and mycotoxins.

Because chlorella is a living organism, it has evolved to bind only to toxic substances, not essential minerals. For this reason, it can be used long-term with no risk of nutritional deficiency over time.

Suitable products include:

Cholestyramine

Cholestyramine is a prescription medication that binds to bile and cholesterol but has a high affinity for some mycotoxins.

It does not bind to heavy metals. It binds to many fat-soluble nutrients, and the prescription medication includes sugar, artificial flavors, or aspartame, which are often not tolerated.

Compounded cholestyramine is another option that typically includes natural fillers and stevia but is expensive.

Its use can cause “intensification reactions” as it sequesters many mycotoxins out of cells. This reaction is often managed with a low amylose diet and fish oil.

Ecklonia Cava

Ecklonia Cava is an alga with essentially the same properties as Chlorella. It is often tolerated when nothing else is, and it can be used long-term.

Ecklonia cava also has various compounds that have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-retroviral, and prebiotic activities. It is also used for prostate and erectile difficulties.

Enterosgel®

Enterosgel® is a silica-based gel, which is a household name in Russia and has been extensively studied.

Despite its chemical-sounding ingredients, it is extremely well-tolerated and does not bind to micronutrients or beneficial bacteria. Like zeolite, it binds to histamines.

It is marketed for radiation poisoning, food poisoning, traveler’s diarrhea, and a hangover. It also has extensive studies showing it improves irritable bowel syndrome, candida, urticaria, dermatitis, and eczema.  It also has a very high affinity for aluminum.

Humic and Fulvic Acids

Humic and fulvic acids are made from decomposed plant matter.

They are best known for their ability to bind to environmental chemicals such as glyphosate. Taking humic and fulvic acids before a meal may counteract any glyphosate consumption in that meal.

Product options include:

Modified Citrus Pectin

Modified citrus pectin is manufactured from the inner white pulp of citrus fruit peels.

It has a high affinity for lead and a moderate affinity for arsenic and cadmium.

It does not bind to nutrients or minerals, making it safe to consume long-term and in conjunction with meals.

Products:

Silica

Unlike most binders, which do not bind to aluminum, silica selectively binds to aluminum and other metals like thallium and tin.

You can get silica through 1 liter of silica-rich mineral water like Volvic (30mg a liter), Fiji (91 mg a liter),  or Acilis water, but these come at the expense of being in plastic bottles.

Other alternatives are:

Purified Silica

Purified silica attaches to thiolic (sulfur) metal-binding groups. It has a very high affinity for methyl-mercury, lead, and cadmium.

Product options include:

Welchol

Welchol is another prescription medication used to bind mycotoxins. It can also be compounded.

It has a quarter of the cholestyramine binding capacity but is generally better tolerated, although it can cause intensification reactions.

Zeolite

I have written extensively about how Zeolite binds histamines.

It also binds to cadmium, lead, and mycotoxins.

Klinghardt reports that a Russian study found it superior to all other binders (including cholestyramine and bentonite clay) in the detoxification of mycotoxins. Certainly, it has excellent coverage of mycotoxins.

Due to the mineral content of zeolite, it is highly alkaline. If you have low stomach acid, it is important to take the zeolite in capsules to alter your stomach acid balance.

The zeolite source really matters as there needs to be sufficient silica to bind the aluminum naturally contained within the zeolite. The ratio needs to be more than 5 silica to 1 aluminum molecule.

These brands meet this criterion:


Liquid (Nanoparticle) Zeolite

When I write about zeolite, I inevitably get asked about liquid (nanoparticle) zeolites, which are being heavily marketed.

It is my experience that many of the people discussing these are selling the product and cannot answer basic questions.

Here is what you need to know:

You need to see the zeolite ingredient's chemical composition to know whether the product is safe for you. Not that it contains zeolite but the actual mineral composition.

Does it have a low aluminum ratio to silica such that the remaining mineral content can adsorb the aluminum?

This is true of all zeolites but even more important for liquid zeolites that can cross the brain barrier.

If the ratio is not right, you could be depositing aluminum (linked to brain-related degeneration) on your brain. The aluminum you see on testing could be from the product. Are you substituting one problem for another?

Some companies also describe their zeolite as “synthetic.”

This is not the same as the studies’ natural zeolite substances any more than artificial flavors are the same as the real thing.

Liquid zeolites also claim to mobilize toxins from the cells. They do not bind them in fibers in the gut. Mobilization and binding are two different things.

Gastro-intestinal binders should also always be utilized with liquid zeolite. Liquid zeolite claims to push toxins out of cells.  Powdered binders catch in the gut and increase removal from the body in the stool.

Also, detoxification pathways should be open. Otherwise, you will likely have histamine type reactions.

If your lymphatics, microcirculation, kidneys, liver, and bowels are already clogged with toxins, you’ll just be adding to the problem.

More importantly, there are ways to mobilize cellular toxins, using the body’s own mechanisms, including ionic footbaths, that does not expose your body to risk. I prefer to start there.

Okra

All fibers have toxin and mycotoxin binding capabilities. However, a 2007 study found okra to have 16% of the bile acid-binding capacity of cholestyramine.


Microbiome

Many gut bacteria and yeasts bind to mycotoxins.

The Actinobacteria phylum, lactobacillus strains, Bacillus strains, and fungi are highly studied as having mycotoxin binding capabilities. However, their capabilities are strain-dependent.

Many of the identified strains are not commercially available. However, these have proven high mycotoxin binding capability.

TIMING OF BINDERS

Binders should be taken away from food so as not to interfere with nutrients.

It is generally recommended to take them at least 30 minutes before, or 1 – 2 hours after, eating or taking any supplements or medications, two times a day. Charcoal should be taken 3 hours away from food, supplements, or medications.

In people with a gallbladder, the binder's timing is to coincide with the release of bile in response to food. People who have had their gallbladder removed so that bile flows continuously may benefit from dispursing binders four times a day.

Binders can also be taken acutely, in higher dosages, during “die-off” reactions. For example, with a histamine flare, I take two to three times the amount of zeolite, and it resolves in 30 minutes.

LENGTH OF USE OF BINDERS

When using binders as part of a healing protocol for chronic heavy metal toxicity, parasites, bacterial infections, or candida, Lyme disease, or mold, it may be necessary to pulse the binders.

Some binders, such as chlorella and ecklonia cava, are “intelligent” binders that only bind to toxins, which are safe for long-term usage.

Others, like activated charcoal, cholestyramine, and welchol, binds indiscriminately and are best used for acute relief for a matter of days (unless in a small amount in a mix).

Yet others fall somewhere in between. Whilst they do prioritize certain toxins, they can bind to small amounts of nutrients over time. I usually rotate them 60 days on and 60 days off.

Here are some general recommendations on the length of time to use each binder.PreviousNext

PREVENTATIVE USE OF BINDERS

The best preventative strategy is avoidance with a high fiber diet, clean food, clean water, clean air, and a diverse microbiome.

Binders can then be used preventatively based on known exposures.

So, for example, fulvic and humic acid can be consumed before eating non-organic foods.  As a general preventative, I also like Pure Encapsulations HM Complex and BioSil.

If you have mercury amalgams, then binders are safe as they do not mobilize the mercury. Rather they are recommended to absorb the off-gassing.

WHEN NO BINDER IS TOLERATED

I like to use ART testing to determine what binders will be tolerated. This takes the process of trial and error out of the process.

The best-tolerated binder is PC Ecklonis Kava, which also has immune-modulating properties.

However, when no binder is tolerated, this is a significant clue that limbic kindling is a blocking-factor.

Limbic kindling results from when the autonomic nervous system becomes overwhelmed by stressors (physical, electrical, psychological) such that the brain remains stuck in “threat” mode.  Everything becomes a threat.

In these instances, the Dynamic Neural Retraining System can rest the limbic system. However, the ultimate solution also relies on reducing stressors.

CONCLUSION

Binders have been used for centuries as a remedy for toxin exposure. They are even used in acute hospital settings today.

They are usually the first part of the protocol I introduce. And the first product I reach for with a histamine flare or die-off reaction.

The selection of which binder is right for you will depend on your individual circumstances. Yet, in my experience, the use of binders can dramatically improve protocol outcomes.

ADDITIONAL READING

Activated Charcoal

Tack, J. F., et al. “Randomised clinical trial: the safety and efficacy of AST?120 in non?constipating irritable bowel syndrome–a double?blind, placebo controlled study.” Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 34.8 (2011): 868-877.

Galvano, Fabio, et al. “Activated carbons: in vitro affinity for ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol and relation of adsorption ability to physicochemical parameters.” Journal of food protection 61.4 (1998): 469-475.

Avantaggiato, Giuseppina, Robert Havenaar, and Angelo Visconti. “Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials.” Food and chemical toxicology 42.5 (2004): 817-824.

Nolan, James P., John J. McDevitt, and Gwendolyn S. Goldmann. “Endotoxin binding by charged and uncharged resins.” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 149.3 (1975): 766-770.

Zhelezova, Alena, Harald Cederlund, and John Stenström. “Effect of biochar amendment and aging on adsorption and degradation of two herbicides.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution228.6 (2017): 216.

Monge, María del Pilar, et al. “Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 33.6 (2016): 1043-1052.

Nolan, James P., John J. McDevitt, and Gwendolyn S. Goldmann. “Endotoxin binding by charged and uncharged resins.” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 149.3 (1975): 766-770.

Saif, Muhammad Jawwad, et al. “Removal of heavy metals by adsorption onto activated carbon derived from pine cones of Pinus roxburghii.” Water Environment Research 87.4 (2015): 291-297.

Tan, Zengqiang, et al. “Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H2O2.” Fuel 90.4 (2011): 1471-1475.

Lalhruaitluanga, H., et al. “Lead (II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo)—a comparative study.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 175.1-3 (2010): 311-318.

Wang, Gui-xian, and Qi-Wei Zhang. “Adsorption Law of Bamboo-Charcoal for Heavy Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution [J].” Chemistry & Bioengineering 3 (2008): 024.

Wang, Fa Yuan, Hui Wang, and Jian Wei Ma. “Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent—Bamboo charcoal.” Journal of hazardous materials 177.1-3 (2010): 300-306.

Jiang, Ya-Hui, et al. “The efficacy of bamboo charcoal in comparison with smectite to reduce the detrimental effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro rumen fermentation of a hay-rich feed mixture.” Toxins 6.7 (2014): 2008-2023.

American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. “Position statement and practice guidelines on the use of multi-dose activated charcoal in the treatment of acute poisoning.” Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 37.6 (1999): 731-751.

Bond, G. Randall. “The role of activated charcoal and gastric emptying in gastrointestinal decontamination: a state-of-the-art review.” Annals of emergency medicine 39.3 (2002): 273-286.


Bentonite Clay

Phillips, T. D., et al. “Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: a review.” Food additives and contaminants 25.2 (2008): 134-145.

D. E. Diaz, W. M. Hagler, J. T. Blackwelder, et al., “Aflatoxin Binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed,” Mycopathologia, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 233–241, 2004.

Nones, Janaína, et al. “Organophilic treatments of bentonite increase the adsorption of aflatoxin B1 and protect stem cells against cellular damage.” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 145 (2016): 555-561.

Li, Yan, et al. “Research progress on the raw and modified montmorillonites as adsorbents for mycotoxins: A review.” Applied Clay Science (2018).

Sukenik, Assaf, et al. “Removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from lake water by composites of bentonite with micelles of the cation octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA).” Water Research 120 (2017): 165-173.

Haydel, Shelley E., Christine M. Remenih, and Lynda B. Williams. “Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 61.2 (2007): 353-361.

Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal, and Susmita Sen Gupta. “Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review.” Advances in colloid and interface science 140.2 (2008): 114-131.

Chitosan

Nolan, James P., John J. McDevitt, and Gwendolyn S. Goldmann. “Endotoxin binding by charged and uncharged resins.” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 149.3 (1975): 766-770.

Gallaher, Cynthia M., et al. “Cholesterol reduction by glucomannan and chitosan is mediated by changes in cholesterol absorption and bile acid and fat excretion in rats.” The Journal of Nutrition 130.11 (2000): 2753-2759.

Gerente, C., et al. “Application of chitosan for the removal of metals from wastewaters by adsorption—mechanisms and models review.” Critical reviews in environmental science and technology 37.1 (2007): 41-127.

Tsujita, Takahiro. “Inhibiting lipid absorption using basic biopolymers.” Future Lipidology 2.5 (2007): 547-555.

Solís-Cruz, Bruno, et al. “Evaluation of Chitosan and Cellulosic Polymers as Binding Adsorbent Materials to Prevent Aflatoxin B1, Fumonisin B1, Ochratoxin, Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol, and Zearalenone Mycotoxicoses Through an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Model for Poultry.” Polymers 9.10 (2017): 529.

Panith, Nootchanartch, et al. “Effect of physical and physicochemical characteristics of chitosan on fat-binding capacities under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions.” LWT-Food Science and Technology 71 (2016): 25-32.

El-Gamal, Rehab, et al. “The use of chitosan in protecting wooden artifacts from damage by mold fungi.” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 19.6 (2016): 70-78.

Hope, Janette. “A review of the mechanism of injury and treatment approaches for illness resulting from exposure to water-damaged buildings, mold, and mycotoxins.” The Scientific World Journal 2013 (2013).

Chlorella

Simonich, Michael T., et al. “Natural chlorophyll inhibits aflatoxin B 1-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in the rat.” Carcinogenesis 28.6 (2007): 1294-1302.

Georgiou G. Scientific research on natural heavy metal chelatorstesting what works. Int J Complement Alt Med. 2018;11(5):262267

Volesky, Bohumil, and Z. R. Holan. “Biosorption of heavy metals.” Biotechnology Progress 11.3 (1995): 235-250.


Enterosgel

Sears, Margaret E. “Chelation: harnessing and enhancing heavy metal detoxification—a review.” The Scientific World Journal 2013 (2013).

Detoxifying Agent Enterosgel New Approaches: Collection of Research Papers (English translation of extensive research in Russia/Ukraine).


Humic and Fulvic Acid

Shehata, Awad A., et al. “Neutralization of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by humic acid in vitro.” Chemosphere 104 (2014): 258-261.

Piccolo, A., G. Celano, and P. Conte. “Adsorption of glyphosate by humic substances.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44.8 (1996): 2442-2446.

Gildea, J. J., D. A. Roberts, and Z. Bush. “Protective effects of lignite extract supplement on intestinal barrier function in glyphosate-mediated tight junction injury.” J Cin Nutr Diet 3 (2017): 1.

Bard R. Effects of Humic Acid on animals and humans: An Overview of Literature and a Review of Current Research. 2002. pg. 3-7.

Gondar, D., et al. “Cadmium, lead, and copper-binding to humic acid and fulvic acid extracted from an ombrotrophic peat bog.” Geoderma 135 (2006): 196-203.

Hudak, A., et al. “The favorable effect of humic acid based complex micro-element preparations in cadmium exposure.” Orvosi hetilap 138.22 (1997): 1411-1416.

Modified Citrus Pectin

Zhao, Zheng Yan, et al. “The role of modified citrus pectin as an effective chelator of lead in children hospitalized with toxic lead levels.” Alternative therapies in health and medicine 14.4 (2008): 34-39.

Eliaz, Isaac, et al. “The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements.” Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 20.10 (2006): 859-864.


Silica

Reffitt, David M., et al. “Silicic acid: its gastrointestinal uptake and urinary excretion in man and effects on aluminum excretion.” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 76.2 (1999): 141-147.

Purified Silica

Clarkson, T. W., et al. “Tests of efficacy of antidotes for removal of methylmercury in human poisoning during the Iraq outbreak.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 218.1 (1981): 74-83.

Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad, et al. “Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.” DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 22.1 (2014): 46.

Clarkson, Thomas W., Hamish Small, and Tor Norseth. “Excretion and Absorption of Methyl Mercury After Polythiol Resin Treatment.” Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 26.4 (1973): 173-176.

Zeolite

See Zeolite Binds Histamines

Aghel, B., Mohadesi, M., Gouran, A. et al. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02466-5

Okra

Kahlon, T. S., M. H. Chapman, and G. E. Smith. “In vitro binding of bile acids by okra, beets, asparagus, eggplant, turnips, green beans, carrots, and cauliflower.” Food chemistry 103.2 (2007): 676-680.

Probiotics

Gacem, Mohamed Amine, et al. “Mycotoxins: decontamination and nanocontrol methods.” Nanomycotoxicology. Academic Press, 2020. 189-216.

Ji, Cheng, Yu Fan, and Lihong Zhao. “Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins.” Animal Nutrition 2.3 (2016): 127-133.

Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady, and Lene Jespersen. “Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria as potential mycotoxin decontaminating agents.” Trends in food science & technology 17.2 (2006): 48-55.

Barathi, M. Divya, S. Chandrasekar, and V. Ramya. “Research article a preliminary study on stability and variability of encapsulated probiotic yeast saccharomyces boulardii and sacchromyces cervisiae and its ability to bind mycotoxins.” (2014).

Bueno, Dante J., et al. “Physical adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a theoretical model.” Journal of food protection 70.9 (2007): 2148-2154.

Perczak, Adam, et al. “The efficiency of lactic acid bacteria against pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins.” Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 69.1 (2018): 32-45.

Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui, et al. “The binding efficiency and interaction of Lactobacillus casei Shirota toward aflatoxin B1.” Frontiers in microbiology 9 (2018): 1503.

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